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Welcome to the Ultimate Guide to Solar Panels in Minnesota

This page is a complete guide to the complicated and sometimes confusing process of installing solar panels on your Minnesota home. Since there's a lot to consider, we've separated the page into sections to help you find what you are looking for. If you find this page useful, please share it with someone who might also find it interesting!

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** What's new for 2020 **

Minnesota continues to develop solar friendly programs. Lawmakers recently adopted the IEEE solar interconnection standard, making it easier to connect your panels to the grid. Minnesota has been a leader in implementing innovative community solar programs, and the state's largest utility company, Xcel Energy, also offers a great low-income solar program.

All told, the North Star State loves the sun, and going solar here can be a great financial decision, too! Read on to learn more about the ins and outs of solar in Minnesota.

Questions? Our network of solar experts are on call to assist you! Simply sign up for personalized solar help. You can get discounted pricing as low as $4,500/kW! This is paired with the strong Minnesota solar panel incentives below.

What you'll find on this page:

The Solar Strategy section is focused on the 3 ways of paying for solar in Minnesota, so you can decide which is best for you. We've created a tool that asks you a few questions and recommends whether you should pursue a solar lease, loan, or outright purchase. Then, we provide detailed analysis of how each works.

The Policy Information section contains all our latest research on the rules set by lawmakers and the Public Utilities Commission, which determine how easy it is to go solar in Minnesota. These policies and rules govern everything from renewable energy mandates to interconnection, and have a huge effect on the viability of solar.

Finally, the Solar Incentives section includes information about money-back rebates and grants, tax credits, and tax exemptions for going solar in Minnesota.

Click any of the boxes below to go to that section of the page, or scroll down to read the page in order.

Generate an accurate online solar estimate for your home

Your Solar Strategy in Minnesota

Figuring out the best way to go solar in Minnesota can be a little daunting. From loans and leases to power-purchase agreements, there are a lot of options out there. To help you pick the one that might be best, we've created the handy decision tool below.

We'll ask you a few simple questions about you and your home. Once you're done, we'll recommend a good option. Further down this page, we provide cost estimates and example return-on-investment calculations for all the various options:

How should you pay for solar?

Use our decision tool to find out!

How to pay for solar panels in Minnesota

The chart above shows the 25-year returns for an investment in solar whether you choose to purchase a system with cash or pay over time with a loan or lease. As you can see, Minnesota has the potential for good financial returns. The purchase option leads to the highest dollar-amount returns over time, but look a little closer. Taking a loan (the orange bars) and paying for the system over time means you'll never actually put down any of your own money.

That's what makes the solar loan option better. If you take a HELOC, you'll pay the system cost down monthly, but you still get a huge tax credit after the first year. Your payments over 15 years will actually be less than the savings and income your system will generate, and it'll mean that you're never putting any of your own money into the purchase. All you need is great credit—or the equity for a HELOC.

The option with the smallest savings is for a solar lease or PPA, which means you put $0 down on a rooftop solar system and pay monthly while you accumulate electricity bill savings over time. Leases and PPAs are an excellent option if you don't have any equity or cash to put down, and they still save you thousands.

Read more below about each of three very good options for solar in Minnesota!

How much can solar panels on roof save you?

Option 1: Paying cash for solar

An outright purchase used to be the only way to get solar, and it's still the option that provides the 'biggest' financial returns. The reason we put 'biggest' in quotes here is because it's technically true. You'll see a net return of almost $29,900 in 25 years if you pay up front. But it requires a significant up-front investment.

If you have equity in your home or good credit, you can get a solar loan or HELOC with an interest rate of 4% or less. It's like being able to start a business that is sure to succeed, just by having a roof. Read about loans above.

If you've got cash and you prefer to pay up front, you'll have to plunk down $22,875. But by the end of year 1, incentives and energy savings will erase a bunch of it. Over 25 years, your system will have produced about $29,900 in income. The reason this works is that electricity in Minnesota is EXPENSIVE. Solar offsets enough of it to save you about $1,333 in year 1, and it just goes up from there. As the electric company raises rates, you save more and more, and more...

Here’s how the numbers pencil out when you pay up front for a 7.5-kW rooftop solar system:

  • Installing a typical 7.5-kW solar system should start at about $22,875. That's cheaper than solar has ever been, but it still might seem like a big investment. Don’t worry, because after tax breaks and energy savings, your first-year costs will be considerably less than that.
  • The Feds calculate their incentive based on actual out of pocket costs, so take 26% of $22,875, for a tax credit of $5948. Your total investment is now down to just $16,928.
  • After the tax credit we subtract your first year’s energy savings, which we estimate to be $1,333. If you're an Xcel customer, add in another $715 from the Solar*Rewards program, and that reduces your cost after the first year to only $14,880.
  • Your system will pay for itself in just 6 years, and over its 25-year life, you'll see a total net profit of $29,873. The internal rate of return for this investment is a stupendous 12.4%!
  • And don't forget... your home's value just increased by around $14,700, too (your expected cost after solar incentives)!
  • In addition to all that cash (and home value), you’ve created some green for the earth as well by not using electricity from fossil fuels. It's like planting 205 trees a year, every year your solar power system is humming.
Keep in mind, the numbers above are based on an average home in Minnesota. If you're ready for a custom quote for a solar panel system, our network of experts are on call to assist you. Simply sign up for personalized assistance on our special solar deals page.

Option 2: Using a loan to pay for solar

You don't need $23,000 sitting around to pay for solar. As long as you have equity in your home, you can still own solar panels and reap all the benefits. Heck, even if you do have the cash, getting a loan to pay for solar is by far the best option when it comes to percentage return on investment.

That’s because, in Minnesota, using a loan to pay for solar is like investing in a business that's sure to succeed, and also earns you a tax break. Your tax savings will be huge in the first year—more than enough to offset the small difference between the loan payments and electric bill savings. All this means you'll never have to spend a cent on solar, and you'll still come out way ahead over 25 years.

A solar purchase like this will make sense for you if the following is true about you and your current situation:

  • You can qualify for a solar loan or home-equity line of credit (HELOC) for $22,875, with a fixed rate of 4% or lower and a 15-year repayment period. Don't be put off if you're offered a higher rate. It just means a tiny bit less of the thousands of dollars you'll make with solar.
  • You love making money without much risk.

Here’s how the numbers pencil out for a Minnesota solar purchase with a loan:

  • Installing a typical 7.5-kW solar system should start at about $22,875. That's how big your loan will need to be to cover it.
  • The electricity you'll save in the first year of operation would have cost $1,333, but your annual loan payments will be $2,099, meaning you would spend $766 on solar this year, but...
  • You'll also see a huge tax break. The Feds give you 26% of the cost of your system back as a tax credit, which in this case is $5,948 You'll be paying over time but getting all the benefits up front!
  • The electricity savings will continue for 25 years, while your loan payments will last only 15. By the end of the 25-year life of your panels, you'll come out $21,250 ahead.
  • On top of the green that will stay in your pocket, your system will mean green for the environment, too. 205 trees-worth, every year!
Keep in mind, the numbers above are based on an average home in Minnesota. If you're ready for a custom quote for a solar loan, our network of experts are on call to assist you. Simply sign up for personalized assistance on our special solar deals page.

Option 3: Buying the electricity, not the panels with a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA)

A PPA is a great way to go solar if you haven't got stacks of cash or oodles of equity in your home. In Minnesota, it's possible to get solar panels for $0-down and see savings over 20 years!

The North Star State doesn't quite have the financial benefits of states with more sunshine or higher electricity prices—or both. For now, getting a PPA for a 7.5-kW solar system will save you just about $219 per year, which might not sound like a great deal, but as the utility company raises rates, you will start to see monthly savings. Over 20 years, our estimate shows a total savings of $8,620.

So you can get free solar panels on your house, which will mean you're greatly reducing greenhouse gas emissions and helping the environment. The panels will be installed and maintained by professionals, and all you have to do is brag to the Andersons down the street about your green habits!

Keep in mind, the numbers above are based on an average home in Minnesota. If you're ready for a custom quote for a solar PPA, our network of experts are on call to assist you. Simply sign up for personalized assistance on our special solar deals page.

Calculate solar panel cost and savings for your specific home

Minnesota Solar Policy Information

Ever wonder why solar seems to be everywhere in some states, but not in others? We did too.

State legislatures and public utilities commissions can enact rules to make solar power accessible for everyone. Favorable rules explain why some of the cloudiest states—New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut, are doing so well with solar, and yet some of those with the most natural solar resources—like Alabama, Mississippi, and Georgia—are doing so poorly.

Below is important information about the public policy, rules, and economic reasons that affect your ability to go solar here in Minnesota:

Minnesota's Renewable Portfolio Standard

31.5% by 2020 (For Xcel only)

Grade: B

Minnesota's Renewable Portfolio Standard grade

Minnesota’s RPS sets different goals for Xcel (the state’s largest electric company) and all other utilities. Xcel is required to generate 31.5% of its electricity from renewable resources by 2020.

Given that it’s already 2020, a new RPS is sorely needed in Minnesota. While other utilities aside from XCel Energy need to source at least 26.5% of their electricity from clean sources by 2025, we’d like to see more ambition out of the Minnesota state legislature. Targets of at least 75% by 2030 are achievable, it’s time to set the bar higher here.

Learn more about Renewable Portfolio Standards

Minnesota's Solar carve-out and SRECs

1.5% by 2020

Grade: B

Minnesota's Solar Carve-out grade

In 2013, the Minnesota state legislature enacted H.F. 729, which requires Xcel and all other public utilities to generate 1.5% of their power from solar installations by 2020. 10% of that energy must come from small-scale solar installations of 20 kW capacity or less, meaning the utility companies have an incentive to encourage homeowners to contribute power toward meeting that goal!

Learn more about Solar Carve-outs

Minnesota Electricity Prices


Grade: C

Minnesota's Electricity cost grade

Minnesota electricity consumers pay an average of 13 cents per kilowatt-hour of electricity. That’s pretty close to the national average of 13.6 cents/kWh, and nowhere near as expensive as some east coast states. Minnesotans have been enjoying the historically-low prices for natural gas and coal, but these resources have long-term environmental costs and are unsustainable over the long term. As fossil fuels become more scarce and energy prices from traditional sources start to rise, electricity rates are going to skyrocket. When that happens, homeowners who take advantage of state solar benefits programs now will be very happy they switched to solar power.

Find out why electricity prices matter

Minnesota Net Metering


Grade: A

Minnesota's Net Metering grade

Net Metering requires your utility to monitor how much energy your solar power system produces and how much energy you actually consume. If you run a surplus, you get credit for it.

Minnesota’s net metering law applies to all utilities, and requires them to provide net metering for all solar power systems less than 40 kW. Overall we gave net metering in Minnesota a weak grade because of that size limitation. The cap should be raised significantly or removed altogether to allow commercial and industrial customers to meet on-site generation needs. That said, the 40-kW limit should cover virtually all residential solar systems, which typically come in somewhere around 5-kW for a single-family home.

While commercial and industrial customers may not be able to take advantage of net metering, it’s a pretty sweet deal for your residential system. You get compensation for any surplus you generate at the “average retail utility energy rate.” Minnesota has a specific formula for determining what that is, but it basically amounts to the same as the retail rate you pay every month for electricity. Compensation may come as either actual payment (i.e. a check) or a credit on your future bills.

Learn more about net metering

Minnesota Interconnection Rules

Statewide w/caveats

Grade: A

Minnesota's Interconnection Standards grade

Minnesota’s interconnection rules aren’t as good as those in other states, because homeowners with solar installations are required to purchase additional insurance and have an external disconnect switch on their system, which adds cost in the end. To drive additional solar adoption among residential customers, Minnesota could improve this area by adopting new standards more in-line with the best solar states.

Learn more about solar interconnection rules

Minnesota Solar Incentives

Next to high electricity prices and net metering, solar incentives have traditionally been the most important factor for whether home solar power makes financial sense in a state. In the past, some states with otherwise lousy policy had tremendous incentives that drove down the up-front cost of going solar so much that homeowners could save oodles of money even without net metering or a good RPS.

These days, the big incentive most people can get is the Federal Solar Tax Credit that earns you 26% of your total system costs back after just 1 year. State incentives play less of a role than in the past, but some really good ones are still out there, ready to help homeowners go solar and save money before you know it.

Let's see how Minnesota measures up:

The availability of state solar incentives for residential solar systems was sourced from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency, utility company websites, and the state public utility commission.

Minnesota Solar Power Rebates


Grade: C

Minnesota's Solar Rebates grade

Because Minnesota has such a strong RPS, there are a number of great utility rebates offered for solar. Most are paid as a simple calculation of dollars-per-kilowatt of generating capacity, but there's one that's different.

Minnesota Power offers a solar rebate program based on your first-year estimated production. The current incentive is $.83 per kilowatt-hour (kWh), and with an average 5-kW system pumping out about 6,200 kWh, you can expect around $5,150 back as a rebate. That's a great incentive, but they disappear fast, so get in touch with a solar expert near you today and get the ball rolling on that rebate!

Utility CompanyRebate amountCap
Austin Utilities$500/kw$5,000
Brainerd Public Utilities$500/kw$2,500
Dakota Electric$500/kw$4,000
Minnesota Power$.83/kWh (est. 1st year production)No maximum
Moorhead Public Service Utility$1,500/kw$30,000 total program budget
New Ulm Public Utilities$1,000/kw$2,000
Owatanna Public Utilities$500/kw$5,000
Rochester Public Utilities$500/kw$5,000
Learn more about solar rebates

Minnesota Solar Tax Credits


Grade: F

Minnesota's Solar Tax Credits grade

Minnesota does not currently offer any tax credits for solar power. With all those strong utility rebates available, the legislature is missing a golden opportunity to piggyback onto the existing programs and drive even more conversion to renewable energy.

Learn more about state solar tax credits

Property Tax Exemption


Grade: A

Minnesota's Solar Property Tax Exemptions grade

A newly-installed solar power system is 100% exempt from associated property taxes. When a solar power system is installed, your home value rises significantly – twenty times estimated annual electricity savings. With the Minnesota property tax exemption in place, you’ll never pay any taxes on that home value jump.

Sales Tax Exemption


Grade: A

Minnesota's Solar Sales Tax Exemption grade

The purchase of your solar power system in Minnesota is 100% exempt from sales tax. That saves you almost 7% up front.

Learn more about tax exemptions for solar

Low-income Solar Programs

Xcel Solar*Rewards

Grade: A

Minnesota's Solar Sales Tax Exemption grade Learn more about low-income solar programs available in the U.S.

The consensus on Minnesota solar power rebates and incentives

With some utility-backed solar power rebates, the 30% federal solar tax credit, and the potential for big benefits from using Minnesota-made equipment, Minnesota offers a low initial cost, leading to a solid overall payback timeframe. While it would be much preferable to see a direct rebate program from Xcel, it is possible to design and build a solar system in any part of the state that will be paying you dividends for years to come. We respect the ways Minnesota is encouraging solar enough to give it an “A,” especially with a strong RPS ensuring that those solar payments and utility company rebates should continue.

And of course, if you’d like some personalized assistance, get in touch with us and we’ll have an expert contact you in a jiffy.

29 thoughts on “2020 Minnesota Solar Incentives | Solar Panel Cost, Rebates, and Tax Credits

  1. Avatar for Anonymous Anonymous says:

    The Made in Minnesota rebate is available to apply for only Jan 1- Feb 28 each year and is an option for Xcel, Otter Tail, and MN Power customer. Xcel also has its own year round production based rebate called Solar Rewards. As of 10/29/2016 there are Solar Reward funds still available for 2016, and the MN Dept of Commerce who runs the Made in MN program has said it will be available again come Jan 2017. A $50,000 system will put out a LOT of power, but if you use it, you’ll spend that money with the utility well before the warranty on the panels would be up. And with financing (loan not lease), many people find that they can save money right away on their monthly budget, AND once that loan is paid off (10-15 years), they have 10-15 years of no payments to anyone for their electricity. Read the date the article was published, and also when they took their data; articles published March 2015 probably have 2013 data, and so much has changed in the industry in just 2016.

  2. Avatar for I I'm Going Eco says:

    Are panels best installed on the south roof in MN? How about west/southwest facing panels?

  3. Avatar for Anonymous Anonymous says:

    Hi I am looking for help in contacts of who can help as a resource i am interested in building a facility that uses as much solar engery as possible

  4. Avatar for Anonymous Anonymous says:

    It looks like the information under the “Minnesota Solar Power Rebates” section may be out of date. Specifically, Xcel Energy (the largest utility company in the state) is no longer providing rebates for solar systems and has a new performance-based incentive program only. The link that points to no longer exists since that rebate program no longer exists.

    1. Avatar for Ben Zientara Ben Zientara says:

      Thanks for pointing that out. That link to DSIRE is actually broken because DSIRE recently completely changed the way their database is organized, but you’re correct that Xcel’s rebate program no longer exists. The performance-based program that replaced it is very weak by comparison, but there are still some pretty sweet “Made in Minnesota” rebates you can attachto it that make it a decent deal. Thanks for writing!

  5. Avatar for Anonymous Anonymous says:

    i am going to make money

  6. Avatar for Anonymous Anonymous says:

    web sight sucks

  7. Avatar for richard richard says:

    How much would it cost for a city like minneapolis

  8. Avatar for Jason in St. Paul Jason in St. Paul says:

    Thank you for the informative and thorough website- very nice. I have just one quick comment: I think it is just a touch ironic that the above photograph at the top of this page is a picture of a diesel powered locomotive… pulling train-cars full of coal. It just seems a bit incongruous on a website promoting solar energy.

  9. Avatar for David David says:

    I’m in Colorado and a have sold 8 million in solar here, and Johnm you are correct 3/watt is very doable. This is the math I understand out of Minnesota. a 10kw system at a cost of 30k- xcel rebate 15k, – fed tax credit 4,500 would be a net 10,500. This system in a ideal orientation would produce 13,000 kwhs at a local value of 1,400 annual savings. This would be less than a 7 year ROI! Not bad and very sellable!

  10. Avatar for This must be a joke This must be a joke says:

    I think its a crap investment:
    Annual savings = $0.11/kwh X 9840kwh X 50% = $541.
    Cost = $36K less 30% less $6.4K = $19K
    Payback = $19K / $541 = 35 years.
    No thanks.

    1. Avatar for Aall Aall says:

      Couple things about your math I have a question about, but if it is correct, I have to agree with you, not close to a good deal. Under savings, where do you get the X 50% from, it significantly reduces your ROI, and under the cost, from everything I’ve read, they pay 60% of the total cost in rebates, so it would be $36k X 60% = $21,600-36.000=$14,400, which would equate to 26.6 years, still a long time assuming your 50% figure under savings is correct. If it was closer to 100%, it would be closer to a 15 year payback, not super but better.

    2. Avatar for johnm johnm says:

      I’m not understanding your calculation. I come up with much different numbers. I think you could do (and people are doing it) a system for about $3/watt. which is about a 12 kW system.. at 14% capacity factor would produce about 14,700 kWhrs annually.. if you purchase more efficient panels the annual cf may go higher.

      (a 9 kw system for 4 bucks/watt would yield about 11,000 kwhrs annually and an appx 20 year payback… not so good)..

      so if you multiply the 36000 x .3 = about 25200 to pay off. it depends on your interest rate and how much you can buy current rates of .11/kwhr..and at .11/kwhr would produce about $1600/year in electrical savings I come up with about 15 years or so to pay off at 3 bucks/watt..

      Since pv panels last 20 – 25 years maybe it’s not such a bad investment..if you can get it done for 3/watt.

      and electrical costs go up generally each year with inflation and if the EPA rules start to kick in the rates may jump higher than normal and it would pay itself off faster. I think you at least need to put a cost of living escalator in there somewhere to accurately reflect year to year energy costs.

      I know you can get panels for about 70 – 80 cents/watt right now.. inverters another 50 cents/watt or so.. which leaves your racking and electrical breakers, wires etc.. which you should be able to do in my opinion for the 3 – 4 dollar mark. I know it’s under what they’re quoting but I’ve talked to developers who are doing projects in the 2/watt range so I don’t think it’s totally unreasonable. I think the national average is about 4 – 5 bucks a watt..which is too much imo.

      first time I’ve been here.. pretty good website.

  11. Avatar for Chris Chris says:

    Does anybody know of a business that can or will install a small grid tie system. Small as in under $2500, something that you can expand on at a later date.

    1. Avatar for Dave Llorens Dave Llorens says:
      sign up there and someone will give you a buzz for a free quote. If you live in one of 13 or so states, you can get it for zero down and just pay for the energy ($0 is way below $2500). Otherwise, that will be tough. Best way is to sign up and find out.

  12. Avatar for Eric Sandeen Eric Sandeen says:

    For the folks lamenting the $36,000 to $50,000 cost (pre-incentives) see the article on this site about the enphase micro-inverters – – which lets you do a much smaller system with a nice linear cost. i.e. small system, small cost.

    I checked into a -tiny- 3-panel system, maybe just 700W or so, and it nets out to around $2k. For maybe $1k each or so, I can add a panel+inverter to that as I’m able to afford it … don’t buy a flat-panel for the den, buy one for the roof! :)

  13. Avatar for marshall marshall says:

    IS EXAMPLE RESIDENTIAL SOLAR INSTALLATION calculation pretty old? Federal rebate is now 30% not $2000 maximum.

    1. Avatar for Tor a.k.a. "Solar Fred" Tor a.k.a. "Solar Fred" says:

      Marshall….yes. We’ve got to update all of our pages. So sorry, but we’re only 3 solar dudes, but we will get to all of them. :)

      As you noted, the $2000 cap is no more until 2016, so get it while you can from the feds. A 30% tax credit applied after all of the local rebates have been subtracted.

  14. Avatar for Grahm Grahm says:

    I think it is fantastic how the stimulus funds are making a difference. They are being taken advantage of all the time with the installation of geothermal heat pumps to replace high energy heating and cooling systems.

  15. Avatar for Allen Allen says:

    I’ve read about systems wherein some solar panel companies will estimate the monthly energy cost of an individual household. Then the solar company will offer the individual household a monthly bill that will be less than their energy bill would have been. That new monthly bill, paid to the solar company, over a 20-30 year plan, will pay for the cost of panels and installation. So, the consumer saves by paying a monthly bill that’s less than what their energy bill would have been without solar panels, and the solar company saves by being able to install a far greater number of panels for a more diverse group of people, while still getting their money, just over a longer period of time.

  16. Avatar for Pam Pam says:

    we live outside the town limits, but in the township of a town on 20 acres and I was thinking about solar pannels for our home & or garage. How much would this cost on an existing structure & is it worth the effort? Also what can you tell me about geothermal energy?

  17. Avatar for dana dana says:

    we are building a house in the country with no trees we would love to put pannels on our shop roof but there is no way to fund a new house and $50000 worth of pannels to do it right the first time, is there a lease option?

  18. Avatar for Eric Ortiz Eric Ortiz says:

    Hi, What about sponsering groups of people to start solar store business locally to support interest and demand. I have been having a great deal of difficulty financing a business although all perspective investors think its a great idea no one has the $$$$ to move on it.

  19. Avatar for Richard Carter Richard Carter says:

    The best option we can see currently is what is known as Renewable Energy Payments (aka Feed-In Tariffs, though we don’t like using the word ‘tariffs’ because of the political connotations).
    It is how the Germans moved the cause forward so quickly; and have demonstrated it works. On this site (and others) you will find quite a bit of information regarding REP’s. (Set up a google alert for any of these terms and acronyms. You will get an intense education.)
    Hope you join us in getting more of these statutes passed. Call your Senators and Representatives. Tell them your wants. There are new versions of such bills being authored in many states in the coming sessions. MI, MN, VT, IL, FL, many others. Hope you get involved!!!

  20. Avatar for mary hoffman mary hoffman says:

    36 Thousand I simply cannot afford as a single homeowner. Can we come up with a reverse electrical bill of some sort and I begin with 10 thousand loan from the bank with so low interest payment? How can we all work together on this.

  21. Avatar for Mike Jerger Mike Jerger says:

    What about the rest of the state? There seems to be less info about the potential of rural residential/farming set-ups. I’m talking about something like 40 acres of land with solar or wind installed which you can swath around for bio-fuel.

  22. Avatar for random-individual-117823 random-individual-117823 says:

    My buddy has a solar panel system in (on) his home and is getting PAID by the utility company for his excess power.

    Knowledge is power — FOR REALZ! And solar power doubly-so.

    Minnesota Roxxors! (in terms of providing opportunities for running your electric meter backwards via solar panels)

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